Dr. Bernard Arulanandam's lab studies the basic mechanisms of immune defenses at mucosal sites. Mucosal surfaces form the major interface between the host and the environment, and constitute the first line of defense against pathogens. Specific ongoing projects include:
Immunopathogenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis
We are currently investigating various aspects of Chlamydia-induced pathogenesis utilizing genital and lung bacterial challenge models. The pathology produced by both genital (e.g., PID) and pulmonary infection of newborns (asthma-like consequences such as airway hyper-reactivity) result as a consequence of immunological sequeale to the primary or repeated infections with this pathogen. Research interest also includes regulatory mechanism(s) of host microRNA in responding to Chlamydia infection and vaccination. These studies are aimed at providing insights into the design of a viable vaccine against this pathogen.
Mucosal Defenses Against Acinetobacter baumannii
Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen observed in injured military service personnel from the Middle East. We are focused on identification of bacterial virulence factors associated with pathogenesis and delineation of their role in mucosal immune evasion to establish gastrointestinal colonization. We also use a murine pulmonary challenge model to study bacterial factors that contribute to A. baumannii dissemination following LPS-induced lung injury to cause systemic sepsis. The long-term goal of this research is to develop prophylactic and therapeutic treatment against multi-drug resistant A. baumannii.
Wali, S., Gupta, R., Yu, J.J., Lanka, G.K., Chambers, J.P., Guentzel, M.N., Zhong, G., Murthy, A.K. and Arulanandam, B.P. (2017) Chlamydial protease-like activity factor mediated protection against C. trachomatis in guinea pigs. Immunol Cell Biol, 95, 454-460.
Keck, J., Gupta, R., Christenson, L.K. and Arulanandam, B.P. (2017) MicroRNA mediated regulation of immunity against Gram-negative bacteria. Int Rev Immunol, 1-13.
Gupta, R., Arkatkar, T., Keck, J., Koundinya, G.K., Castillo, K., Hobel, S., Chambers, J.P., Yu, J.J., Guentzel, M.N., Aigner, A., Christenson, L.K. and Arulanandam, B.P. (2016) Antigen specific immune response in Chlamydia muridarum genital infection is dependent on murine microRNAs-155 and -182. Oncotarget, 7, 64726-64742.
Ainsworth, S., Ketter, P.M., Yu, J.J., Grimm, R.C., May, H.C., Cap, A.P., Chambers, J.P., Guentzel, M.N. and Arulanandam, B.P. (2017) Vaccination with a live attenuated Acinetobacter baumannii deficient in thioredoxin provides protection against systemic Acinetobacter infection. Vaccine, 35, 3387-3394.
Ketter, P., Yu, J.J., Cap, A.P., Forsthuber, T. and Arulanandam, B. (2016) Pentraxin 3: an immune modulator of infection and useful marker for disease severity assessment in sepsis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol, 12, 501-507.